If we will attentively consider new born children, we shall have little reason to think that they bring many ideas into the world with them and that "by degrees afterward, ideas come into their minds.
Friedrich noted in his family journal: On Sunday 21 June [ NS: He was given free access to it from the age of seven. While Leibniz's schoolwork was largely confined to the study of a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide variety of advanced philosophical and theological works—ones that he would not have otherwise been able to read until his college years.
He also composed hexameters of Latin versein a single morning, for a special event at school at the age of He defended his Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui Metaphysical Disputation on the Principle of Individuation which addressed the principle of individuationon 9 June Leibniz earned his master's degree in Philosophy on 7 February He published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure collectarum An Essay of Collected Philosophical Problems of Right arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy and law, in December After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law on 28 September Inthe University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoral application and refused to grant him a Doctorate in Law, most likely due to his relative youth.
He next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Altdorf, saying that "my thoughts were turned in an entirely different direction".
Many posthumously published editions of his writings presented his name on the title page as " Freiherr G. Leibniz then dedicated an essay on law to the Elector in the hope of obtaining employment. The stratagem worked; the Elector asked Leibniz to assist with the redrafting of the legal code for the Electorate.
Although von Boyneburg died late inLeibniz remained under the employment of his widow until she dismissed him in After Leibniz's service to the Elector there soon followed a diplomatic role. He published an essay, under the pseudonym of a fictitious Polish nobleman, arguing unsuccessfully for the German candidate for the Polish crown.
The main force in European geopolitics during Leibniz's adult life was the ambition of Louis XIV of Francebacked by French military and economic might. Meanwhile, the Thirty Years' War had left German-speaking Europe exhausted, fragmented, and economically backward.
Leibniz proposed to protect German-speaking Europe by distracting Louis as follows. France would be invited to take Egypt as a stepping stone towards an eventual conquest of the Dutch East Indies. In return, France would agree to leave Germany and the Netherlands undisturbed.
This plan obtained the Elector's cautious support.
Inthe French government invited Leibniz to Paris for discussion,  but the plan was soon overtaken by the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and became irrelevant. Napoleon's failed invasion of Egypt in can be seen as an unwitting, late implementation of Leibniz's plan, after the Eastern hemisphere colonial supremacy in Europe had already passed from the Dutch to the British.
Soon after arriving, he met Dutch physicist and mathematician Christiaan Huygens and realised that his own knowledge of mathematics and physics was patchy. With Huygens as his mentor, he began a program of self-study that soon pushed him to making major contributions to both subjects, including discovering his version of the differential and integral calculus.
He met Nicolas Malebranche and Antoine Arnauldthe leading French philosophers of the day, and studied the writings of Descartes and Pascalunpublished as well as published.
Stepped reckoner When it became clear that France would not implement its part of Leibniz's Egyptian plan, the Elector sent his nephew, escorted by Leibniz, on a related mission to the English government in London, early in He met with the Royal Society where he demonstrated a calculating machine that he had designed and had been building since The machine was able to execute all four basic operations adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividingand the society quickly made him an external member.
The mission ended abruptly when news of the Elector's death 12 February reached them.
Leibniz promptly returned to Paris and not, as had been planned, to Mainz. In this regard, a invitation from the John Frederick of Brunswick to visit Hanover proved to have been fateful. Leibniz had declined the invitation, but had begun corresponding with the duke in Gottfried Leibniz: Philosophy of Mind.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz () was a true polymath: he made substantial contributions to a host of different fields such as mathematics, law, physics, theology, and most subfields of philosophy.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Freedom and Possibility, (PDF, 63kb) Real-Life Dialogue on Human Freedom and the Origin of Evil, (PDF, 64kb) Essay on Dynamics, New Essays on Human Understanding, Book 1 ; Book 2 ; Chapters i-xix. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe (Reichl, ) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Philosophical Texts, ed.
by Richard Francks and R. S. Woolhouse (Oxford, ) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Discourse on Metaphysics and the Monadology, tr. by R. Montgomery (Prometheus, ) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, New Essays on Human Understanding.
Full text of "New essays concerning human understanding, together with an appendix" See other formats. Other articles where New Essays Concerning Human Understanding is discussed: empiricism: Modern philosophy: l’entendement humain (, published ; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding), arguing that ideas can be virtually innate in a less trivial sense than Locke allowed.
Interpreting Locke’s notion of reflection as reasoning rather than as introspection, Leibniz supposed . In the New Essays on Human Understanding, Leibniz argues chapter by chapter with John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, challenging his views about knowledge, personal identity, God, morality, mind and matter, nature versus nurture, logic and language, and a host of other topics.
The work is a series of sharp, deep discussions by.