Find out how electrocuting chickensgetting laboratory assistants to put their hands in buckets of salinetaking the ECG of a horses and then observing their open heart surgeyinduction of indiscriminate angina attacksand hypothermic dogs have helped to improve our understanding of the ECG as a clinical tool. He derived the word from the Greek for amber electra. It was known from ancient times that amber when rubbed could lift light materials. De Magnete, magneticisique corporibus, et de magno magnete tellure.
Thereafter succeeding generations of the family are described as gentlemen. William Byrd was born in London,  the son of another Thomas Byrd about whom nothing further is known, and his wife, Margery.
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In his will, dated 15 Novemberhe describes himself as "in the 80th year of my age", suggesting a birthdate of or His two brothers were choristers at St. A reference in the prefatory material to the Cantiones sacrae published by Byrd and Thomas Tallis in tends to confirm that Byrd was a pupil of Tallis in the Chapel Royal.
It was probably composed near Block alternating pattern essay end of the reign of Queen Mary Tudor — who revived Sarum liturgical practices. A few other compositions by Byrd also probably date from his teenage years.
Some of the hymns and antiphons for keyboard and for consort may also date from this period, though it is also possible that the consort pieces may have been composed in Lincoln for the musical training of choirboys.
Residing at what is now 6 Minster Yard Lincoln, he remained in post until Since Puritanism was influential at Lincoln, it is possible that the allegations were connected with over-elaborate choral polyphony or organ playing.
The s were also important formative years for Byrd the composer. It is at any rate clear that Byrd was composing Anglican church music, for when he left Lincoln the Dean and Chapter continued to pay him at a reduced rate on condition that he would send the cathedral his compositions.
Byrd had also taken serious strides with instrumental music. The seven In Nomine settings for consort two a4 and five a5at least one of the consort fantasias Neighbour F1 a6 and a number of important keyboard works were apparently composed during the Lincoln years.
All these show Byrd gradually emerging as a major figure on the Elizabethan musical landscape. As we have seen, Byrd had begun setting Latin Block alternating pattern essay texts as a teenager, and he seems to have continued to do so at Lincoln.
De lamentatione, another early work, is a contribution to the Elizabethan practice of setting groups of verses from the Lamentations of Jeremiahfollowing the format of the Tenebrae lessons sung in the Catholic rite during the last three days of Holy Week.
Other contributors in this form include Tallis, White, Parsley and the elder Ferrabosco. It is likely that this practice was an expression of Elizabethan Catholic nostalgia, as a number of the texts suggest.
The Chapel Royal[ edit ] Byrd obtained the prestigious post of Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in following the death of Robert Parsonsa gifted composer who drowned in the Trent near Newark on 25 January of that year.
Queen Elizabeth — was a moderate Protestant who eschewed the more extreme forms of Puritanism and retained a fondness for elaborate ritual, besides being a music lover and keyboard player herself. Cantiones quae ab argumento sacrae vocantur [ edit ] Shortly afterwards Byrd and Tallis were jointly granted a patent for the printing of music and ruled music paper for 21 years, one of a number of patents issued by the Crown for the printing of books on various subjects.
The two monopolists took advantage of the patent to produce a grandiose joint publication under the title Cantiones quae ab argumento sacrae vocantur. It was a collection of 34 Latin motets dedicated to the Queen herself, accompanied by elaborate prefatory matter including poems in Latin elegiacs by the schoolmaster Richard Mulcaster and the young courtier Ferdinand Heybourne aka Richardson.
The inclusion of Laudate pueri a6 which proves to be an instrumental fantasia with words added after composition,  is one sign that Byrd had some difficulty in assembling enough material for the collection. Diliges Dominum a8which may also originally have been untexted, is an eight-in-four retrograde canon of little musical interest.
Also belonging to the more archaic stratum of motets is Libera me Domine a5a cantus firmus setting of the ninth responsory at Matins for the Office for the Deadwhich takes its point of departure from the setting by Robert Parsons, while Miserere mihi a6a setting of a Compline antiphon often used by Tudor composers for didactic cantus firmus exercises, incorporates a four-in-two canon.
Tribue Domine a6 is a large-scale sectional composition setting from a medieval collection of Meditationes which was commonly attributed to St Augustine composed in a style which owes much to earlier Tudor settings of votive antiphons as a mosaic of full and semichoir passages.
Byrd sets it in three sections, each beginning with a semichoir passage in archaic style. Some of them show the influence of the motets of Alfonso Ferrabosco I —a Bolognese musician who worked in the Tudor court at intervals between and The Cantiones were a financial failure.
In Byrd and Tallis were forced to petition Queen Elizabeth for financial help, pleading that the publication had "fallen oute to oure greate losse" and that Tallis was now "verie aged". They were subsequently granted the leasehold on various lands in East Anglia and the West Country for a period of 21 years.
Byrd himself appears in the recusancy lists from With the influx of missionary priests trained at the English College, Douainow in France but then part of the Spanish Netherlands and in Rome from the s onwards, relations between the authorities and the Catholic community took a further turn for the worse.
Byrd himself is found in the company of prominent Catholics. In he got into serious trouble because of his association with Paget, who was suspected of involvement in the Throckmorton Plotand for sending money to Catholics abroad.
In he attended a gathering at a country house in the company of Father Henry Garnett later executed for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot and the Catholic poet Robert Southwell. While the texts of the motets included by Byrd and Tallis in the Cantiones have a High Anglican doctrinal tone, scholars such as Joseph Kerman have detected a profound change of direction in the texts which Byrd set in the motets of the s.
Some texts should probably be interpreted as warnings against spies Vigilate, nescitis enim or lying tongues Quis est homo or celebration of the memory of martyred priests O quam gloriosum. Domine praestolamur is a good example of this style, laid out in imitative paragraphs based on subjects which characteristically emphasise the expressive minor second and minor sixth, with continuations which subsequently break off and are heard separately another technique which Byrd had learnt from his study of Ferrabosco.Feb 22, · Best wishes, Clive There are two primary methods of organization block and alternating.
As the name implies, block organization requires that the writer first write about topic A, and then topic B: if you are writing about men and women, you would write your first half of the essay about men, and the second half about women.
This organizational pattern is most effective when used on longer essays, such as a comparison of two articles, short stories, or novels. The body of such an essay.
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There are two basic patterns for organizing comparison and contrast: the alternating pattern and the block pattern. •With the alternating pattern, the writer moves back and forth between the two caninariojana.com two things are compared and contrasted point by point or characteristic by characteristic.
AL-PHY PHYSICS ADVANCED LEVEL AIMS A course of study based on this Syllabus should: 1. provide a balanced course for further study and give an appreciation of the nature and the importance of physics in daily life;.
What is a Comparison Essay?. A comparison essay (or a Compare and Contrast essay) is a commonly used type of writing assignment in various classes of high school and college, from art to science. In a comparison essay you should critically analyze any two subjects, finding and pointing out their similarities and/or differences.